Rectangular pieces of leather, plate, or parchment worn diagonally
from the helm to the shoulders in the 13th c., often painted with heraldic
A padded coat-like garment worn under armor
A cuirass of horizontal lames.
Various techniques by which metal is made softer. With steel, this
involves heating the piece to red hot and allowing it to cool slowly.
The handle of a buckler.
A tool used in armouring. Generally a large and heavy item of
steel, with one or two horn-shaped projections and a flat top. Often features
hardie and pritchel holes, to hold additional tools and form stock,
Arest de Lance
Vamplate, later the lance-rest.
Armes a l'epreuve
A close-fitting helmet with hinged jugulars [cheekplates] and
see Arming bonette
see Arming Doublet.
Doublet worn under plate armour.
Long hose worn under leg armour.
Laces for tying on parts of plate armour.
A padded cap worn under the helmet.
(German) see Elbow Cop.
A stamped symbol used to mark the armour with the identify of its
(French) Fluted armour.
Arret de lance
see Lance Rest.
(French) Small decorated tabs used on straps for armour and horse
(French) see Rerebrace.
Any point in armor where two plates are riveted either together or
to a backing and intended to allow movement to another position, all the while
protecting the wearer.
A breastplate or cuirass, a vamplate.
(French) The front peak of the burgonet.
Curtain of mail hung from a helm to protect the neck and face.
Plate armour defense for the back
Crupper or horse trappings.
Shin defences of metal or cuir bouilly.
Bakhteretz (or Bekhter)
Small rectangular plates overlapping vertically and horizontally
connected with Maille.
Whalebone used for crests or the swords for tournaments.
An ornamental belt, and/or one to carry a sword, worn over one
shoulder and the opposite hip.
Maille with with leather thongs through it for solidity.
Alternative descriptions, as an armour of rings sewn onto fabric, do not appear
to have documentation, nor even to be practical/possible.
A helm of one piece covering the entire head and flaring over the
upper neck, but leaving a varying amount of the face uncovered. Also called a
A modern adaptation to open faced helms to allow for their safe use
in SCA style combat. A small number of period images indicate that a very few
helms may have had a similar construct.
The division of wood which separated combatants in foot tourneys.
(German) Chin guard of plate.
A light helmit of ovoid form tapering to a point at the summit.
Taces or loin guards of plate.
(Persian) A single main plate covering the outside of the forearm
up to and including the elbow generally with one or more minor plates to cover
the inside of the forearm.
(German) see Tassets.
(German) see Cuissard.
Small plates to protect the armpits.
The chin piece associated with many styles of helm, particularly the
sallet and close helm.
A type of bascinet with neck and chin piece.
A cape of maille.
(French) coat of maille.
An oxidized blue surface on iron/steel, to protect against rust.
A raised, usually round metal feature, usually corresponding to the
location of the hand behind a shield.
(French) Armour proof against all weapons (high proof).
A button or buckle for fastening the gorget to the breast plate.
The hole cut in the corner of the shield through which to point the
lance; also a circular hole in the vamplate.
(French) A coif.
(French) A method of attaching two plates together sliding in burrs
(Italian) A small shield with arm-guard and "sword breaker" all in
A leather wrist-guard used by archers of the long bow.
see Elbow Cop.
The whole arm-defence, including vambrace, elbow cop, and
Plate armour protection for the front of the torso, down to the
waist. see also Plackart
Holes or slits in the visor of the helmet or the lames of a falling
buff or bevor, for ventilation and in some cases, additional visibility.
(German) Neck guards on pauldrons.
Straps for joining breast and back pieces.
A body defence of small plates riveted to a cover and lining of
fabric. In discussions of non-European armours, the term if often used to
describe a Coat of Plates with plates inside.
A small buckler used for sword and buckler fights.
A shirt of maille.
(Spanish) see Visor.
Brustschild mit schonbart
(German) A tilting breastplate with mentoniere.
A small round shield carried primarily by infantry.
The buffe or face plate of a burgonet.
A coat of buff leather.
A light, open helmet, generally found with ear flaps and sometimes
a face guard, XVI-XVII cent.
A mid 15th c. helm resembling two halves of an egg that close
together around the wearer's head, with an incorporated neck defense.
A coat of maille. The term is generally used to denote a coat of
maille with a smaller covered area, like a short t-shirt.
A helmet with narrow brim all round, XVI cent.
The vamplate of a lance.
A skull cap worn under the hat by cavalry, XVII cent.
(Spanish) Skull of a helmet.
(Italian) see Camail.
See aventail. Also, a hood or tippet of maille, XIV-XV cent.
(Italian) The wearing of white shorts over armour for night attacks.
The tubular vambrace. This is a later term used in England mostly
to represent both the rerebrace and the vambrace.
Capel de nerfs
A leather helmet, XIV cent.
(Italian) A skull cap of steel.
(Spanish) see Chapel de Fer.
A collar or gorget of maille.
An open helmet, often of classical design, late XVI cent.
An open head piece with brim and back peak reaching far down the
neck, XVII cent.
A maille clad horse.
(Spanish) see Casque.
Celada de engole
(Spanish) A helm worn for foot tourney with axe, sword, or spear.
(Italian) A Venetian form of sallad with a nose piece, XV cent.
Celata da Incastro
(Italian) see Armet.
(Italian) see Sallad.
(Italian) A metal skull cap.
(Italian) Repousse work used in the decoration of armour.
Defence of plate for the horse's head.
Chapel de fer
(French) A broad brimmed helmet used from XII to XVI cent.
The bolt that fixed the tilting helm to the breastplate.
Covering for the leg and foot of maille.
A tight fitting surcoat shorter in front than in behind, XIV cent.
The crest on the helm.
A lace for fastening the coif of maille or the hauberk.
Studs to fasten the gorget.
(Greek) see Lamellar.
(Italian) A circular shield.
(French) False rivet heads found in XVII cent. armour.
Coat of Plates
A type of armour made of plates attached to the inside or outside
of a garment. Perhaps the most famous European set with internal plates are
those found at Wisby, the most famous European reference to external plates
would be illustrated in the Romance of Alexander. The earliest set is seen
worn by the Chinese Terra Cotta soldiers in aproximately the 4th century BCE -
it has external plates. Robinson gives the earliest date for one with internal
plates as 6th century China.
Coda di Gambero
(Italian) see Lobster Tail.
(Spanish) see Elbow Cop.
A piece of plate to protect the groin area.
A hood of maille.
A term describing a process of fabricating modern steel sheet. The
steel is sent through the final rollers cold, minimizing surface scale, and
resulting in harder material.
A buff coat.
(Spanish) The plate of the helmet that covered the nape of the neck.
A seemingly modern term generalizing both couters and poleyns.
Differentiated by saying "elbow cop" or "knee cop". Also (often as COP or CoP)
the acronym for "Coat of Plates."
(Italian) The skull of a helmet.
Armour composed of leather.
Cotta di Maglia
(Italian) A coat of maille.
A cold chisel.
Elbow pieces of plate.
(corrected) Elbow pieces of plate.
(French) The neck plate of the back of the armet or sallad.
A bolt for attaching the helm to the cuirass.
A heraldic device, usually three dimensional, worn on the top of a
helm, made of any number of materials, such as feather, parchment, leather,
(Italian) Crest of a helmet.
A support fixed from helm to back plate to take the shock when
Armour for the horse's neck.
Armour for the hind part of the horse.
(Italian) see Elbow Cop.
Armour made of hardened and moulded leather.
Torso armour, originally of leather, afterwards of plate.
Leg armour, comprising of cuisses, knee cops, and jambs.
Thigh pieces of plate.
A type of tabard or surcote, usually with dagged edges.
Typically a shorter version of the bascinet meant to be worn
underneath of a great helm.
Short plate that hangs from the bottom of either a single piece
poleyn or the bottom articulation lame of a leg harness with an articulated
Pointed sollerets of medium length.
Aka half-gauntlet. A rigid or articulated piece of armor for the
wrist and the back of the hand, lacking the protection afforded the fingers and
thumb by a full gauntlet.
A steel skull cap.
A war horse.
(German) Leg guard for the joust.
A technique by which metal can be formed into bowl shapes. The flat
metal is placed over a bowl shaped form of wood, metal, or even nylon, and is
struck with a round faced hammer repeatedly until the desired depth/ shape is
roughly achieved. See planishing.
A form on which to raise armour.
(Italian) The back of a gauntlet.
(Spanish) The back plate of a cuirass.
(French) see Lobster Tail.
(German) see Sollerets.
Pieces of plate armour to cover the elbow.
A metal or leather glove with a cuff reaching to the elbow.
Elmo di Giostra
(Italian) A tilting helm.
The loops for holding a shield.
Shoulder defence of plate.
(Spanish) see Tassets.
(Spanish) see Sollerets.
(Spanish) see Pauldron.
(Spanish) see Spur.
Leg armour for a horse; only one example of this armour exists, in
A technique to embellish metal with patterns and designs, usually
done with gravers, but more modernly with acids and resists.
(French) see Stirrup.
(Italian) see Taces.
The "wing" on the outside of an elbow or knee cop.
(French) see Lance Rest.
Armour (usually of horizontal lames) attached to the bottom edge of
a breastplate to protect the abdomen.
(French) Thigh armour.
(German) Spring pins to which the pauldrons were hung, XVI cent.
A type of gorget, XV cent.
(French) A wedge fastened to the breast plate which took the shock
of the shield.
A crease in metal creating a raised line on the piece.
(German) A joust run without a barrier.
Knuckle or finger spikes fixed to the gauntlet.
(Italian) A type of helm.
A type of modern steel that has gone through the galvanization
process in order to make it rust-resistant.
A quilted tunic, worn under maille, or by itself XI cent.
(French) Neck guards on the pauldron.
(French) see Codpiece.
(French) The tail guard of a horse.
Reinforcing piece for the left arm, worn while tilting.
(Old French) A coat of maille.
(German) Gauntlet with articulated fingers.
Jointed knee pieces of plate.
A technique to add a thin coat of gold to armor. Normally not used
for armors intended for combat.
Polishing wheel for armour plates.
(German) see Codpiece.
(Italian) see Gorget.
A plate collar to protect the throat.
A term used to denote armors from Germany and Austria between
approximately 1470 and 1490, eventually supplanted by Maxamillian armors.
Gothic armors were made from light, fluted plates, in sharp contrast with
Italian armors of the time. Gothic harnesses were worn with a sallet.
Reinforcing piece for tilting, worn on the left shoulder.
An early- to mid- 15th c. improvement on the bascinet. Usually with
a subdued or absent point on the top of the helm, a two piece neck plate which
rested on the shoulders, and a globose visor.
Any of a number of helms which are typically of riveted
construction, worn over a maille coif and later even a small bascinet.
Normally with small vision slots, although these are normally enlarged for
Also schynbald or jamber - plate defence for the lower leg from knee
to ankle, initially protecting the front, but later the whole lower leg.
Constructed of 2 plates hinged together and shaped to the contours of the
(Italian) Ear flaps of a burgonet.
Chain which linked the breastplate with the sword, daggar, or Great
Helm to keep them from being lost in action. Most commonly seen in the 14th
(Spanish) see Pauldron.
(Italian) see Mentoniere.
(Italian) The neck guards on the pauldrons.
(Italian) see Grand Guard.
Guardo o Rodillera
(Spanish) see Knee Cop.
The strap round the neck to carry the shield, XII cent.
(Old French) A small buckler of leather.
Pieces of maille, tied with points to the arming jacket to cover
those portions of the body not protected with plate armour (e.g. the elbow
(German) see Gorget.
Various techniques by which metal is made harder. With steel,
particularly blades, the basic process is to heat it (to red hot, but specific
temperatures are important) and quench it, usually in oil. Metal will also
"work harden" as it is hammered, bent, etc.
A term commonly used in reference to a complete set of armor.
(German) The padded cap worn under the tilting helm.
The rake or poker for the forge.
A short shirt of maille.
A long shirt of maille.
Hauscol de mailes
(French) see Standard of Maille.
(French) see Gorget.
(French) A close fitting undergarment to which the hose and the
chausses were fastened with points.
(French) A high-peaked saddle.
(French) High-proof armour, especially maille.
A heavy helm without movable visor and only an eye-slit or
occularium, mostly used for tilting.
Solid (as opposed to maille) armour for the head.
(German) Mitten Gauntlets.
A strict system of identification developed in the medieval period,
presumably to allow combatants to recognize others in full armor by particular
(German) see Rerebrace.
(German) The back-plate of the pauldron.
(German) see Garde-rein.
Common light-horse troopers.
Armor for war as distinct from that of the joust.
A term describing the fabrication of modern steel sheet. The steel
is sent through the final rollers hot, resulting in much surface scale, but
making the steel softer and easer to work.
A late 14th/ early 15th c. gauntlet, so named because of the
resemblance in shape of the hand plate and cuff to an hourglass.
A light head-piece worn by archers, XVI cent.
A long surcoat owrn over the armour, XV cent.
(French) A head piece of leather or cloth, XIV cent.
(Italian) see Enarmes.
A shirt of leather, either quilted or reinforced with plates of
metal or horn.
Skirt of plate.
Armour for the lower leg.
A jointless arm piece of plate reaching from shoulder to wrist.
A short surcoat.
(German) see Gauntlet.
(German) The crest or ridge of the helmet as distinct from the
A tetrahedral breastplate resembling a metal box with a fauld, worn
in the early 15th c.
(German) The neck plate in the front of an armet.
A wide brimmed steel war hat, XIV cent.
see Kettle Hat
(German) see Bevor.
Knee defences of plate, first worn over maille chausses, and
afterwards with complete plate armour.
(Russian) An armour of plates attached to each other with
(German) see Gorget.
(German) see Tasset.
A hood of cloth attached to the helmet with points, and falling down
at the back.
An armour of small plates punched and laced to each other with
thongs (or the small plates used for such armour)
Narrow strips of steel riveted together, found in articulation.
An adjustable hook or rest fixed on the right side of the
(German) A large cuisse for tilting.
Back of helmet made of overlapping lames like a lobster shell.
A gauntlet of plate in which the finger plates overlap and fasten
to a pin on the wrist.
Lorica hamata (pl. loricae hamatae)
Modern term for Roman mailshirt, usually mid-thigh length, often
with a U-shaped collarpiece attached at the back
Lorica plumata (pl. loricae plumatae)
Modern term for Roman armour of small metal scales attached to fine
Lorica segmentata (pl. loricae segmentatae)
Modern term for Roman military plate armour (early 1st to possibly
as late as the middle 3rd century) consisting of curved iron plates articulated
on leather straps, with bronze fittings -- most famous examples are the
Kalkriese, Corbridge, and Newstead types
Lorica squamata (pl. loricae squamatae)
Modern term for Roman scale armour, of small iron or bronze scales
sewn onto a fabric backing
(Spanish) see Rondel.
Armor made from interlocking metal rings.
A right hand guantlet.
Circular plates worn over the breast to hold chains to which the
sword and dagger were attached, XIV cent.
Manica (pl. manicae)
Segmented Roman armguard, made of curved overlapping pieces of iron
or bronze, fastened to a leather backing. Used as both military and
A plate defense for the lower part of the left hand and arm,
usually constructed in one piece and designed for the joust.
(Italian) The handle of a small buckler.
A rigid cape like shield fixed to the left breast and shoulder for
A style of plate armour distinguished by shallow vertical flutings,
said to have been devised by the Emperor Maximilian I, XVI cent.
A piece used with the sallad to protect chin and breast.
A term used sometimes to describe Italian armors of the late 15th
c., made of heavier, unfluted plates, contrasting with armors in Germany at the
time. Usually worn with a barbute or armet. The name is derived from the
armour-producing city of Milan.
Small discs worn over the solar plexus and the corresponding part
of the back. Sometimes another two are worn at the sides of the body and all
four are put together on a leather harness (see also Zertsalo, Chahar Ai Ne).
A gauntlet in which the fingers are not separate.
Light helmet with crest and inverted crescent brim, latter end of XV
Plates to protect the armpits, especially the right, XIV cent.
Made of maille, a mitten-like extension of the sleeve of a hauberk
with an opening at the wrist so the wearer could remove the 'hand'.
Mass produced, cheaply made armour for the common soldiery,
produced in very large quantities in the 16th century. Modern Definition -
Plate armour which has little or no finish work (e.g. polishing) done on it.
Articulated lames, usually attached to the gorget, protecting the
shoulders and upper arms.
(German) Neck plate at the back of an armet.
An appliance for closing rivets.
(Russian) see Bazuband - the Russian defense commonly has a less
deep main plate than the Persian.
A bar of steel fixed or movable on the front of the helmet to
protect the nose, in more general use during XI cent., revived afterwards in
A VXI century, Milanese armorer known for his fantastic works of
The metal tags of the arming points.
Embossed buckles and ornaments for armour, XV cent.
(German) see Rerebrace.
The eye slit in the helm.
Ear pieces found in later forms of the casque and burgonet.
The wreath or twisted scarf worn on the helmet immediately beneath
(Italian) Brass or latten used for edging armour.
A small skull cap of cuir bouilly or steel.
Circular plates to protect the armpits.
(French) The plume of feathers on the helmet.
(French) The lower portion of the cuirass when it is formed of two
(Italian) see Codpiece.
A surcoat or ceremonial dress of rich fabric.
A small shield or buckler.
A reinforcing piece for the left elbow, used in tilting.
A padded vest worn under armour, XVI cent.
Shoulder pieces of plate.
A large shield used by bowmen.
A one-piece breastplate with a pronounced and low-riding belly
section, cut high at the hips, usually with attached articulated tassets. Some
examples have a central ridge.
A breast defence of maille.
(Spanish) see Breastplate.
(German) Embossed armour to imitate puffed silk or velvet, XVI cent.
Pieces of Advantage
Reinforcing pieces for the joust.
Pied de chevre
A ridge of metal set upright on the pauldrons, on the left side.
Erroneously called pasguard.
(French) see Breastplate.
A reinforcing breastplate.
A plate reinforcement attached to the breastplate, which at first
only covered the lower half, but later - especially on Italian armours -
covered nearly the entire breastplate.
A technique used typically after forming a piece of metal. The piece
is struck from the good side with a lightsmooth-faced hammer while the piece is
resting on a suitable form. The process ideally removes tooling marks and
The upper portion of the cuirass when it is formed of two pieces.
Those types of armor consisting of one or more sections of metal
fashioned into a protective covering
The maker of armour plates as distinct from the armourer who made
the plates into armour.
see Armourer's Mark.
Laces for securing the gussts of maille, and plates, to an
Breast armour for a horse.
A defence for the inner bend of the right arm, used in the joust.
A cup shaped plate defense for the knee, usually equipped with a
side wing of heart shape. see also Knee Cop.
see Knee Cops.
(French) The plume holder on the helmet.
A general term for a simple ordinary soldier's helmet, usually of
Sollerets with extremely pointed toes, XIV cent.
A padded and quilted garment of leather or linen.
Quilted material with metal studs at the intersection of the
Armour 'of proof' is made sufficiently thick or hard enough to
resist a shot from a bow or musket.
A spur with a single point and no rowel.
Puffed and Slashed Armour
Embossing armour, often etched and gilt, resembling a style of
dress popular in the early 16th Century, especially in Germany; where 'puffs'
of coloured material were pulled through 'slashes' in the sleeves or body.
A form fitting garment, sometimes padded to which armour is attached
and suspended via laces.
A projecting hook on the back piece of the cuirass to take the butt
end of the lance when held in rest.
(Spanish) see Cuisse.
A technique by which metal can be formed into a myriad of shapes,
using raising stakes and raising hammers. The desired shape determins the
shape of the stake, and the hammers typically have convex faces. Unlike
dishing, raising is done by hitting the metal on the outside.
A deep, one piece sallet with a vision slit cut into it, sometimes
equipped with a fluted brow reinforce and a roller on its lower front edge -
specifically designed for the 'Joust of War'.
A large shield made of wood and leather reinforced with metal which
covered the whole of the wearer's body and his bevor; it was attached to the
breastplate by a central screw and to the bevor by a bolt and wingnut. -
Designed specifically for the 'Joust of War'.
Plate armour for the upper arm.
Rest of Advantage
Some piece of armour forbidden in the jousts of XVI cent. Possibly a
type of lance rest.
see Lance Rest.
Armour formed of flat rings sewn side by side on a tunic of leather
or quilted linen. The existence of this armour is in doubt; there are no
A suit of armour; or the small nails that hold armour together.
A circular plate of armour.
(Italian) A circular shield.
(German) Back plate of the cuirass.
Shoes of laminated plate, usually pointed.
A helmet with wide brim at the back, worn with or without visor and
A type of helmet popular in the XVth century
(Italian) see Tasset.
(Italian) A triangular shield.
A thin steel cap worn under a hat.
A rivet fixed on the upper plate, and moving in a slot on the lower
(Italian) see Pauldrons.
The dished plate for the top of the shoulder. Attached to 2 or 3
lames that protect the upper arm.
Standard of Maille
A collar of maille.
(German) Heavy tilting helm.
(German) A ribbed tilting shield.
(German) The upper part of the visor of an armet.
Padded garment worn under Roman armour, also known as thoracomachus
A great helm with a top curved and pointed like a bascinet.
A garment worn over armour, often decorated with heraldry or other
symbols, and most often posessing some form of side seams.
A large metal base, with different shaped and sized holes for
stakes and swadges to be inserted as well as usually different curved, domed,
angled and tapered depressions.
A metal forming tool usually made to be set into an anvil or swadge
A garment, similar to a surcoat save that in most cases, it had open
Laminated plates at the lower edge of the cuirass.
The vertical ridge in the center of some forms of breast plate.
Small circular shield.
Plates usually lozenge shaped attached by strap and buckle to the
taces to protect the upper and front surface of the thigh.
(Italian) The shade or brim of the burgonet.
A type of armor resembling a plate skirt, as seen in the Henry VIII
A lance bucket fixed over the right cuisse to hold the lance when
Plaited (braided) Laces or arming points.
The boss upon a shield.
The plate defence for the forearm.
A circular shield through which the lance was fixed above the grip.
The lower part of the visor when it is made in two parts. Also, a
maille flap covering part of the face.
The rivets which attach an aventail to a helm.
The part of the helmet, movable or fixed, which protects the eyes.
The round disc at the back of the armet.
(Dutch) see Gambeson.
(Dutch) see Jupon
(German) A cloak decorated heraldically. also (Dutch) a jupon.
A modern term for an armour of plain, polished steel without a cloth
or any other form of permanently attached covering.
Location of a famous battle (c. 1361). Due to a variety of reasons,
a large amount of armour was recovered in the excavation, in particular, 25
versions of coats of plates.
An armour of plates overlapping vertically and connected by maile
(Russian) see Vambrace. Possibly a particular vambrace with no
elbow protection -- just two plates of equal size enclosing the forearm.
(Russian for "mirror") 1) Discs worn at the solar plexus and center
back (see Mirrors). 2) An armour of four plates (front, back, and two side
plates) (see Chahar Ai Ne) 3) A Coat of Plates with external plates consisting
of a central disk at front and back surrounded by rectangular and